ScienceDaily

New analysis of 118 studies conducted over 30 years could help refine, improve food labelling policies — ScienceDaily

A new analysis has integrated findings from 134 studies of the impact of color-coded nutrition labels and warnings found on the front of some food packaging, indicating that these labels do indeed appear to encourage more healthful purchases. Jing Song of Queen Mary University of London, UK, and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine.

Some countries have introduced mandatory front-of-package labeling in hope of improving people’s diets and reducing the burden of diseases associated with poor diets. These labels may employ color coding to indicate nutrition, or they may warn consumers about unhealthful features of products.

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The role of diet in the rise of modern shark communities — ScienceDaily

The availability of prey and the ability to adapt to changing environments played key roles in the evolution of sharks. A new study, in which over 3,000 shark teeth were analysed, provides new insight into how modern shark communities were established. The results are published in the journal Current Biology.

The new research investigated the diversity of shark teeth from the final stages of the Mesozoic (approximately 80 million years ago) to the present day. In particular, it sought to understand why there are only 15 species of mackerel sharks living today (scientific name: Lamniformes), whereas there are more than

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How fructose in the diet contributes to obesity — ScienceDaily

Eating fructose appears to alter cells in the digestive tract in a way that enables it to take in more nutrients, according to a preclinical study from investigators at Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian. These changes could help to explain the well-known link between rising fructose consumption around the world and increased rates of obesity and certain cancers.

The research, published August 18 in Nature, focused on the effect of a high-fructose diet on villi, the thin, hairlike structures that line the inside of the small intestine. Villi expand the surface area of the gut and help the body

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Studying mosquito immune cells could improve understanding of disease transmission — ScienceDaily

A new study that details mosquito immune cells could shed light on the insect immune system and how mosquitoes transmit parasites that cause malaria.

A new study, published recently in the peer-reviewed scientific journal eLife, identifies several new forms of mosquito immune cells, providing new clarity into the mosquito immune system. Immune cells play a central role in the immune response of mosquitoes toward malaria parasites and viruses after these pathogens are taken up upon feeding on an infected person. It’s a field of study that has remained poorly understood due to the lack of genetic tools, said Ryan

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Farmed carnivores may become ‘disease reservoirs’ posing human health risk — ScienceDaily

Carnivorous animals lack key genes needed to detect and respond to infection by pathogens, a study has found. Farming large numbers of carnivores, like mink, could allow the formation of undetected ‘disease reservoirs’, in which a pathogen could spread to many animals and mutate to become a risk to human health.

Research led by the University of Cambridge has discovered that carnivores have a defective immune system, which makes them likely to be asymptomatic carriers of disease-causing pathogens.

Three key genes in carnivores that are critical for gut health were found to have lost their function. If these genes were

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Small changes in diet could help you live healthier, more sustainably — ScienceDaily

Eating a hot dog could cost you 36 minutes of healthy life, while choosing to eat a serving of nuts instead could help you gain 26 minutes of extra healthy life, according to a University of Michigan study.

The study, published in the journal Nature Food, evaluated more than 5,800 foods, ranking them by their nutritional disease burden to humans and their impact on the environment. It found that substituting 10% of daily caloric intake from beef and processed meats for a mix of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes and select seafood could reduce your dietary carbon footprint by one-third and

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